Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Introducing IIF() To  SQL Server Family

IIF() is a brand new logical function introduced with SQL Server 2012 that allows you to perform IF...THEN...ELSE conditional statements within a single function. Behavior of this function is similar to any other programming language IIF() function!

In earlier versions of SQL Server, we have used IF...ELSE and CASE WHEN...THEN...ELSE...END to perform logical conditional operations.

IIF() can be handy for writing conditional CASE statements in a single function. It evaluates the expression passed in the first parameter and returns either TRUE or FALSE.
--Example1: Repalcement of simple IF...ELSE statement
DECLARE @GradeCHAR(1) = 'A'
SELECT IIF(@Grade = 'F', 'Failed', 'Passed') AS Result

Here is the output of above T-SQL code:

--Example2: Nested IIF()

DECLARE @PercentDECIMAL(5, 2) = '50'
SELECT IIF(@Percent > 80, 'A',
IIF(@Percent > 60, 'B', 'C'))

Here is the output of above T-SQL code:

(1 row(s) affected)

-- Example3: In this example, we will evaluate the marks obtained
-- by Smith and Hari and identify who got higer marks between them.

DECLARE @Smith_Marks INT= 72
,@Hari_Marks INT = 86
SELECT IIF(@Smith_Marks > @Hari_Marks
,CONCAT('Smith got ',@Smith_Marks-@Hari_Marks,' marks higher than Hari')
,CONCAT('Hari got ' ,@Hari_Marks-@Smith_Marks,' marks higher than Smith')

Here is the output:

Hari got 14 marks higher than Smith

(1 row(s) affected)


Saturday, August 4, 2012

SQL Server 2012 Analytical Functions: Lead and Lag

SQL Server 2012 supports many T-SQL analytic functions which are listed below:
  • LEAD: Accesses data from a subsequent row in the same result set without the use of a self-join.
  • LAG: Accesses data from a previous row in the same result set without the use of a self-join.
  • CUME_DIST: Calculates the cumulative distribution of a value in a group of values. In other words, CUME_DIST computes the relative position of a specified value in a group of values
  • FIRST_VALUE: Returns the first value in an ordered set of values.
  • LAST_VALUE: Returns the last value in an ordered set of values.
  • PERCENTILE_CONT: Calculates a percentile based on a continuous distribution of the column.
  • PERCENTILE_DISC: Computes a specific percentile for sorted values in an entire rowset or within distinct partitions of a rowset.
  • PERCENT_RANK: Calculates the relative rank of a row within a group of rows.
Analytic functions compute an aggregate value based on a group of rows. However, unlike aggregate functions, they can return multiple rows for each group. You can use analytic functions to compute moving averages, running totals, percentages or top-N results within a group.
In this article, we are going to focus only on Lead and Lag functions.
Lead function accesses data from a subsequent row and Lag function accesses from previous row in the same result set without the use of a self-join.
LEAD | Lag ( scalar_expression [ ,offset ] , [ default ] )
    OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause )
scalar_expression is the value to be returned based on the specified offset. Offset specify the number of rows forward/backward from the current row from which to obtain a value. Default is the value to return when scalar_expression at offset is NULL.
Now lets explorer Lead function with an example:
Problem: Compare values between current year, previors year, and next year.

-- Prepare Test Data

DECLARE @TestData TABLE (Period DATE, Amount INT
INSERT @TestData
SELECT '2006-12-31' Period, 1000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2007-12-31' Period, 3000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2008-12-31' Period, 5000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2009-12-31' Period, 4000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2010-12-31' Period, 7000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2011-12-31' Period, 6000 Amount UNION
SELECT '2012-12-31' Period, 8000 Amount
-- Fetch current year, previous year, and next year data

,Amount AS CurrentAmount
,LAG(Amount, 1, 0) OVER (ORDER BY Period) AS PreviousAmount
,LEAD(Amount, 1, 0) OVER (ORDER BY Period) AS NextAmount
FROM @TestData



Note that in the above we have set the default vaule 0 for Lead and Lag functions so we are getting zero (0) instead of NULL. Also we have set the offset to 1 for lead and lag function so we are getting only subsequent  and previous values. Offset can be set as per requirement but in most of the cases we use 1.

For more information on Analytical Functions, please click here.

Here are few FREE resources you may find helpful.